This research has been supported by “FSP Mali contemporain”, Paris municipality, the French National Research Agency, and the European FP7 (program NOPOOR). We thank Claire Bernard, Mahamadou Dangnoko, Anda David, and Nelly Rakoto-Tiana for their help during the data collection, and we are grateful to the Malian statistical office for providing census data. We also thank the editor and two anonymous referees for very helpful comments.
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