The illusion of tax expenditures in Africa

Tax expenditure is transfer of public funds resulting from a reduction of tax obligations in relation to a standard, rather than direct spending (OECD, 2010). This definition relies to two conditions, which characterize tax expenditure: (1) a reduction in government tax revenue, and (2) a deviation from the tax norm, called the benchmark tax system, which must be defined. Tax expenditure is an alternative to public spending. Its assessment is a component of budget transparency.  .../...
Geourjon, A-M., et G. Rota-Graziosi "L’illusion des dépenses fiscales en Afrique" Ferdi, policy brief B96, June 2014