Mayotte's position as regards development is an important question in the context of its recently acquired department status (March 2011), and its soon becoming one of the Ultra Peripheral Regions of the EU (January 2014). In Autumn 2011, large demonstrations and strikes against cost of living hikes have stressed the extent of poverty in this territory. In our paper, we aim to measure this level of poverty, through the use of the United Nations Development Program's Human Poverty Index. The HPI is a synthetic poverty index which is based on observed shortcomings in three essential human life elements: longevity, education and a decent standard of living. In this light, the level of poverty in Mayotte appearsvery significant.